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Term Definition

In program evaluation the changes that occur as a consequence of the program activities.

Independent variable

A variable whose value influences the values of other variables (has a causal impact on another variable).


A measure that is employed to refer to a concept when no direct measure is available.

Informed consent

A key principle in social research ethics where subjects agree in writing to participate in a research study under certain conditions. Subjects should be given as much information as possible about the study to allow them to make an informed decision.

Internal validity

A concern with whether a finding, which incorporates a causal relationship between two or more variables, is sound.


Social work interventions range from primarily person-focused psychosocial processes to involvement in social policy, planning and development. These include counselling, clinical social work, group work, social pedagogical work, and family treatment and therapy as well as efforts to help people obtain services and resources in the community. Interventions also include agency administration, community organisation and engaging in social and political action to impact social policy and economic development.